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  CSPAN    Today in Washington    News/Business. News.  

    September 7, 2012
    6:00 - 9:00am EDT  

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democratic convention, the week before the convention, there is a cabal of those crazy quilt of democrats. southern segregation-- big-city bosses like boss haze of jersey or jake harvey of chicago, liberals like hubert humphrey, members of the roosevelt family. they all said that we won't bite. i cause back again. there is another explanation of why truman pulled this off, even though everyone is so wary of him. i can't repeat his words, but when he hears the words of the
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>> if you were to describe what vision was for the u.s., and society, in this country as he found it and chose to make his home, do you know what that would be? >> i don't know. it's a very good question. what would he think of us now.
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he had to fly through an airport, go through tsa? you know what i mean. it's sad. so i don't know -- he certainly had a great vision of a free democratic society. and to avoid -- he also said explicitly how quickly this can change, that the good guys can become the bad guys and the bad guys can become the good guys. he definitely, he loved america. he wanted to keep america strong but also fair. >> another interesting person at ias at the time, also doing so much theoretical work, and there's a question here about the conflict between them.
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can you talk a little bit about the conflict that occurred between the two of them? >> he never really did come to the ias. he visited it but he was not a member -- he was at mit. and the game can we try to play of these conflicts. actually, they worked very closely together on a number of things and then he was very opposed to the hydrogen bomb, and that's sort of where -- tour a lot of very sad conflicts between people that just broke up friendships. they differ greatly on whether -- he believed we could actually long range predict the weather. wiener was right.
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>> but they did was argue about it. they disagreed. >> there are a couple of questions here that were sent in earlier today because we asked them some questions, and one is about the first draft of the report on them on which is said to contain some trenches ideas but put forward by someone else. so if that is so, can you talk about which of those ideas were in the report, especially given turing's description of pace which you can also talk about which was not published until a year later? >> it was for a complicated because turing -- the eighth report was definitely based on the ed vac report. i do agree that the ed vac report are based on turing's idea.
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i don't think, again, my opinion but i don't think record in lockley were up to speed on turing. but i would just like to leave they all had great ideas into cooperating at the time. we don't realize how much cross-fertilization there was during the war. all those laboratories were working together. >> is that the zone of history we will never know about? >> i think we need an open mind. radar is a good idea. neither side would've done it on their own, but together they got it done. >> another question is it's been said perhaps unkindly that turing's best contribution to the '80s and pilot pace of development was to leave the laboratory altogether and let the team there get on with it.
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so was turing anymore of a team player in the u.s. while at princeton? i think are two questions. one, was turing not much of it team player, and when he was at princeton was he more of a team puller? >> he joined the rugby team and went -- a team of a different sort spent people at actually. selecting in some ways he was a team puller but but in sport, user long distance runner which is a lone thing rather than making thing. so yeah, he had a reputation as being a loner. but i think he was just difficult to deal with. there's a fantastic memo where he asks the poor people were handling them have to ask, he wants to work half-time. expression is so i can play tennis in the morning when i feel like it.
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you know, rather than feel like he has to go to work. it was difficult to keep them disciplined. >> these questions are from kevin it was very instrumental of the national museum of computing. can it really be said that his best contribution was just to leave and let them get on with their work? >> i wouldn't say that, but i don't know. i'm not all the expert national on turing. i haven't done this kind of looking into archives or documents, but i think turing made great contributions whatever he went. >> it may be that kevin is looking for validation that it wasn't the case. i think you may just given that to him. was there and other intellectual passing of fondling and besides just this insatiably curious mind and head if you're going to
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describe an intellectual passion for what would be? >> he was passionate about history, particularly of the byzantine empire for some reason. he could recite, you know, soviet tremendous wide range of interest. he loves mexican food. alcohol. [laughter] and women. i mean, almost interest in everything. it's hard to find something it wasn't interested in. he was fascinated by landmarks with strange names. he would go way out of his way to go to devils post while, oregon, where this tradition in america, he got to drive 40 miles to go see, and he always went. and he was superstitious. he would never turn the light switch on without turning it on and off seven times.
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>> really? [laughter] how did that come to light? >> i don't know. i think it's probably true. >> she wrote that he, if he got a question in his mind he would've -- >> go crazy to be very temperamental until he worked it out. >> there are cases of people giving him sort of unsolvable problems to watch, you know -- [laughter] >> and someone else said, no one could be so physically indifferent as von neumann news listening to a lecture or a talk that have absolutely zero interest in. >> right. he had no time for smalltalk, but but he was very diplomatic. military, people like strauss, unicom in the navy he was just great how he could negotiate
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agreement among people who disagreed. that's one reason he got people like goldstein -- he got them to work together. the problem is when you get a lot of credit for things, suddenly you get all the credit and shouldn't go that far. >> which he didn't seek, and really anytime that occurred he seemed to be very good about pushing that away, didn't he? >> he was pretty good. he had his share of credit. >> but is he going didn't reire that sort of continuing feeding? >> i think he could feed himself. he didn't need other people. >> so we're going to do a reading. we like to our authors read, because somehow this is just so much more powerful when it comes
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across in your own voice. and she picked a couple of passages out in the book that you're going to read. so i wanted to just close this with your giving us a bit of that. >> okay. i picked the beginning and end and leaving out everything in the middle. [laughter] >> so, the acknowledgments whose title is in the beginning the commandline which is in honor of neal stephenson who helped tremendously with this book actually happen. in 1956 at the age of three, i was walking with my father from his office at the institute at the institute for defense studies in princeton, new jersey, when i found a broken fan belt lying in the road. i asked my father what it was. it's a piece of the sun, he said. my father was a field theorist and protége, former wartime leader at los alamos who, when
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accepting his nobel prize for discovering the carbon cycle that fuels the stars, explained that stars have a lifecycle much like animals. they get born, they grow, they go through a definite integral development and finally they died to give back the material of which they are made so that new stars may live. to an engineer, fan belts exist between the crankshaft and the water pump. to a physicist, fan belts exist briefly in the interval between stars. and then -- now i will read you the end of the book your third baseman storeroom is the place where they were delegated to be in the boiler room. where the first workbenches were installed in 1946, was the
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institute's main server room until recently, connected to the outside world by some 500 for optical fibers routed through a 45 megabit per second switch. in a reversal of attempts to incubate self propagating numerical and dedicated network monitoring system now watches over all traffic, trying to keep out the in the stream of self propagating organs that are now attempting to get him. the viruses are getting so intelligent that is really an arms race, he explained. it's watching the traffic as it goes by. the machines watch out for the machines. the arms race being fought in the basement, will never be decided in favor of the completely deterministic over the problems take an incomplete the wilderness, even if only indigenous wilderness will always win. there are codes and machines that can do almost anything that
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can be given an exact description, but it will never be possible to determine something by looking at a code what that code will do. no firewall can ever be made complete. the digital universe will always leave room for more ministries and even robert frost could dream of, the twilight zone. a 32 by 32 by 40 bit matrix constructed was initialized with coded instructions and then given a 10 bit number with orders to go to that location and perform the next instruction, which could've been an instruction to modify the existing instructions found at that address. even from so finite a beginning, there was no way to predict the end result. in november 2000, the cardboard box turned up in the basement of the west building where its presence had been overlooked. the smell of burning still permit the letter of black dust
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that for some reason had not been thrown out. underneath them was a carton of ibm data processing guards accompanied by a note written in pencil on have a sheet of lined paper, several fragments again find the cards as the drum codes, with instructions without should be loaded and run on the 2048 word heist the magnetic drum. along with a stack of cards were three sheets of letter paper filled with code specified a law that nature governing the universe it was preserved in a state of suspended animation on the cards. here with the dead sea scrolls. the notes accompanying the cards address to mr. baird shelley and sign twl, concludes with the following statement. there must be something about this code that you haven't explained yet. that's the end of the book.
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[applause] >> we have a shortage of many things in this country, george. engineers are among them. software, hardware, you name it, but i'm now convinced that may be one of our other great shortages is a diligent, so intelligent and motivated historians are going to go out, find these boxes and incredibly rare papers and these notes that will really help us understand the full scope of what's happened in history and what the implications are for the future. >> i agree. here we have living history tonight. he has the microphone. >> do want to talk just a little bit, first of all let me say thank you to george dyson for -- [applause]
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>> please, come on up. come on over here. >> take a chair. i want to hear him explain what it was like to join this project at age 17. >> have a seat. you and george have a conversation. >> holed up and i think if you talk -- there you go. >> george and i have had several conversations are and perhaps it would be interesting to know how we met. i have a son in philadelphia, and back in fort collins, colorado, i met a woman whose author had been woodrow wilson's taylor when woodrow wilson was the president of princeton university. imagine how long ago that was. and she was going back to
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princeton for a high school reunion. and we decided we would meet at princeton for lunch, but since i got there early i went out to the institute, and the receptionist, when i told her my little bit of history said why don't you go over to the library? you might be interested in what's over there. and what was over there was a display of the institute, electronic computer 50 years ago. and in the case i found i mean skin copies of letters with my initials at the bottom. all those years later i probably didn't remember writing those letters but the librarian at the
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institute said i think you might like to meet george dyson because he's writing a book about the electronic computer project. i left my telephone number, and the next day george telephoned and they came back to princeton, and we've had i think a friendship ever since. and i got to, i don't know if that's of any interest to you, but when i was 16 years old i graduated from a high school in philadelphia, william penn high school for girls, and my parents, my father who was a greek immigrant, made it very clear to me that i could not expect to go to college. nice greek girls found husbands and went to work, and that was the end of it.
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but a counselor at the high school, i was at the top of my class, she said we had gotten a request for a secretary at the university of pennsylvania. and she sent me out there, and i met dapper herman goldstein dressed in his ordinance uniform, and his wife, a dell goldstein, and for some reason they hired this naïve girl who didn't even know algebra. and there i was thrown into this magic world, that i think of as a miracle. and then after the eniac was introduced, herman and a dell invited me to go to princeton
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with them. for a year i commute on the pennsylvania railroad from philadelphia to princeton junction, and have any of you be -- i'm sure many of you have been to princeton. how many? look at all the hands. did you take the dinky? the train? you took the train from princeton johnston into princeton, -- princeton johnston -- and a mathematician was going on a sabbatical to harvard, and he wanted someone to stay with his wife, and i got the privilege of living in the bochner house a few blocks away from the institute where i have my own bathroom and my own bedroom. and mrs. blocker -- bochner took me in hand, and i was born a
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redhead, and she told me, akrevoe come to look like a renoir painting and you should wear blue and green. so it changed my life, as you can imagine. but just going downstairs today i saw a shot of me in the eniac display. so you never know where life takes you, do you? >> thank you. and to me, the strangest -- [applause] >> all these papers at the institute are terribly disorganized, so we went down to the basement and look at them. akrevoe said, let me organize them. i know that i didn't leave them in this state of disorder. [laughter]
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and you know, you don't have to pay me, just let me coming. but the archivist, they have to be preserved in the state in which they were found so they're still disorganized. >> but i think one of the things george talked about, the institute itself, perhaps some of you have been to the institute, but the institute is now and certainly at that time was a very unique place. it was founded by the family who owned department stores in newark. and i think, and george can correct me, they certainly saw was coming in europe, and they brought professor einstein and professor von neumann and herman. and the names that are all in the history books, brought them to the institute, to this absolutely beautiful landscape.
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and i remember seeing professor einstein walking with kurt, coming to the institute. and one christmas the director of the institute it was frank, been president of the university, invited all the secretaries to his house, to the mansion or the manner. i was the youngest. i was probably 17, and all the other women were certainly much older and much more experienced. and there was a knock on the door, and professor einstein came in with georges babysitter, and had tea with us. and i embarrassed to say, i don't remember a word he said.
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[laughter] [applause] >> and one of the things i remembered was that professor von neumann, in george's book he talks about the wonderful parties the von neumann's gate. and one time to invited the computer group to go pick antiwar my prettiest black dress, and i said say, i had bright red hair, and i got to dance with j. robert oppenheim oppenheimer. [laughter] can anybody else say that? [laughter] [applause] >> thank you so much. one other quick thing. you were telling me earlier that you're thinking about writing
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your memoir, write a book. talk about that and especially the title. >> yes. today, i don't think young women are called secretaries. they are called administrative assistants. they have pretty fancy titles, but in 1946, i was only the secretary. and i think that's what i wanted to title my little memoir, because you can do a lot of good as a secretary. i don't say you're very important, but they need you here and all of you probably have had secretaries. were they important to you? [applause] >> and i also had a wonderful experience. i was a secretary at nyu, because when i needed a job, i
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went to eniac institution because that was my experience, and i've had great experiences being only the secretary. so if i can learn to use my computer -- [laughter] -- maybe i will write. [applause] >> george dyson. [applause] >> tonight in prime time, booktv's "in depth" interview with historian david patricia. he talks about the era of prohibition as well as theoweve presidential election of 1948. e >> a week before the convention there is is crazy quilt, coalition of democrats, southerl segregationist like richardlt russell, strom thurmond we did f
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was a presidential candidate. he was willing to step aside for eisenhower. big city bosses. liberals like hubert humphrey. vembers of the roosevelt familyr we want i.t. but i'd draw back again, crashes the whole thing. there's another explanation of why truman is able to pull this off, even though people are so wary of him. and i can't repeat his exact words, but when he hears theo wa words of truman or the eisenhower now collapsing before the convention he says well, you tell those people that any blanl who sits behind this desk can get we nominate. and that's a large part of it. it's very hard to do a sitting president in the nominating process. spin watch booktv's entire three-hour interview with
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historian tonight at 8 p.m. eastern here on c-span2. >> the u.n. is us. it can be as powerful as these governments want it to be. and sometimes we talk about the u.n. as it, as day, distancing ourselves. by doing that we give them the governments who are ultimately responsible for action or inaction in some these situations and alibi. an alibi and blame the secretary. but one of my predecessors is to say that we often refer to the secretary-general as chief. extends for a scapegoat. so there's a scapegoat. >> you are a scapegoat in chief.
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>> exactly. there is a scape goat bunch of human but member states and immediate have to be very careful not to dump on that so much that we wouldn't even be useful as an alibi. spent more with former u.n. secretary-general kofi a non-edited by bbc america on afterwards. saturday at 10 p.m. and sunday 9 p.m. and midnight on booktv. >> what are you reading this summer? booktv wants to know. >> there are two wonderful books out now about al qaeda and the taliban, david maraniss is working on another biography at this time. and there are lots of great books that have come out every year by serious journalist/this ones that are worth reading. walter isaacson's book on steve
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jobs is a perfect example of that. it was an international best selling phenomenon and with good reason because of all things that we can learn from it. >> what are you currently reading? >> i read eclectically actually. i read a wonderful book written by a british man is fought in world war ii. i'm reading about the 48 campaign which if you think this is while. that was really wild. harry truman and henry wallace and strom thurmond and tom dooley, the first election after the war. so i'm reading that. the book about george bush and how he decided to go to war. my wife just finished catherine the great which was given to me and she picked it off, i got to go back and get involved in that. i read a lot of magazines stuff, a lot of essays. i read -- openable correspondence with a poet by the name of donald hall as result of something he wrote in
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"the new yorker" about growing old, and it really spoke to me anyway so we had a little exchange and that was quite gratifying. i don't pretend to be a great writer. i am an energetic and i'm pretty good sometimes, but a great writers move me anyway that because life does. >> for more information on this and other summer reading lists visit booktv.org. >> next, professor farzaneh milani sat down with booktv just discuss her latest book, transgendered she was interviewed at the university of virginia in charlottesville. it's about 20 minutes. >> you are watching booktv on c-span2. for about the past year or so, on booktv we have been going to universities so that we can meet some professors who are also authors and inner tissue to their works as will some of the other authors that we cover here on booktv. now joining us at the university of virginia in charlottesville
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is farzaneh milani. she is the chair of the department of middle eastern and south asian languages and cultures here at the university, and she's also the author of this book, "words, not swords: iranian women writers and the freedom of movement." farzaneh milani, what's your book about? >> first i would just like to thank you for giving me the honor to speak with you and to introduce my book to your wonderful audience. i would also like to add that i have a joint a point with women's studies. i'm very proud to be a member of that department, that program. "words, not swords" is about segregation in the islamic world. in particular, iran.
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the focus of the book is on iranian women, although i believe that the main thesis can be applied to the islamic middle east and north africa. i have a dual argument in the book. i argued that in the last 160 years women have been at the forefront of the modernizing movement in iran, and in parts of the middle east and north africa. by desegregating themselves, by desegregating the social status, by desegregating the dominant discourse. >> how have they gone about that desegregation? what are some other methods? >> well, let me first also talk
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about the second main argument of the book. i believe women's rights have been at the forefront of this moderating modernizing movement. and i hope you will have the time to discuss why and how. some of the strategies, in the early years of islam, i believe women were an active participant in the social life of the community, and the social discourse. there is, in fact, a chapter in the koran that talks about women who discuss and argue with the prophet mohammed. that's not if they were. they went to war. in fact, women, one of the prophet's wives was the commander of an army.
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so in the early years of islam, women were much more active than they were in the following years. for centuries, most modern societies, and i have to add here that not all islamic societies, majority of countries are necessarily homogeneous. but i think there are certain patterns that continue in these societies. for instance, segregation. what is sex segregation? is the division of the social state, in the world of men, the world of politics, the outside world, the streets, the world of money and whatnot. the inside is the world of women. or what is considered the private.
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now, progressive, over the course of the last 14 centuries, women were segregated further and further. and it is only in the middle of the 19th century that some men and some women thought that the societies being deprived of the contribution of half its population in the public arena. so you might be surprised to know that as early as 1848 there was a congregation in iran a week before the convention in upstate new york in which men and women discussed and, in
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fact, enacted the segregation of women -- desegregation of women. >> where did you come up with the title, "words, not swords"? >> it was a long process. it took me about 16 years to finish this book. in an earlier book i had many focus on the veil. after a while and towards the end of that book in fact i had come to realize that the issue is not the veil, that there is something else. and i couldn't put my finger on it. so through the help of women writers and iranian women, and modern women in other parts of the world, i came to realize that this division of space, that this denial of the freedom of movement to women was really
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the cause and symptoms of gender inequity. that in order to have a democratic society, in order for women to have their human rights and human dignity, they need to be free, to leave their home, and to return to it as they wi wish. >> professor milani, who were some of the iranian women writers that you focus on in your book? >> i start in 1848 with the recognition that social movements are like pregnancies, cannot be traced back to a specific date. but i have to start somewhere, and i thought that congregation in 1848, it is an important you
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to us, the world, would be a good place to start. the women who entered a mail space with voice was named -- she was a poet, and she was a woman who appropriated the pulpit. she had to reinterpret scripture. and i continue until post revolutionary iran. it is unfortunate that we don't have enough transformation of women writers or literary seekers from the rest of the world. as you know, united states of america, the land i love, the land i have adopted as my home, in recent decades has paid less
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and less attention to transiti transition, especially to literary translation. the number of books from the middle east and north africa into english -- [inaudible] in the last 32 years, there has been a lot more translation of english literature that there has been in america, from the land that many consider -- >> is there a contemporary woman rider and iran that you would recommend? olutely. let's first say that -- [inaudible] there is a renaissance.
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there is a renaissance going on in iran. and women are at center stage. let me give you one example about women novelists. in 1947, we have the first major collection of short stories by our foremost woman novelist can and she passed with a couple weeks ago at the age of 19. so women writers are very exceptional. women poets in iran go back over 1000 years, because poetry is more woman kind of art form. you can ride in the privacy of your home. you don't need to go to a
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studio. you don't need directors. you don't need a crew. so it is for women frankly. but women novelists, very rare. so 1947 is the first major literary prose, and then we had a handful of women novelists. and right now we have about 370 women novelists and iran, equal to the number of men. another great woman, we called her the lioness of iran. voice of wisdom and fairness, conscientious witness in the last six decades, especially
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after the revolution. she's a national poet of her country. not recognized by the government as such but recognized by the people inside and come inside and outside the country as the national poet. and for the first time a woman has become the national poet in my country. >> professor milani, where were you born? where were you raised? where did you study? >> i was born in tehran, iran. my parents devoted everything they had to the education of their children. i have four brothers. i am blessed with four brothers. they sent me at early childhood to a french school. i was raised, part of my years in iran by catholic nuns, and part of it -- [inaudible]
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>> in france the? >> in iran. in iran. we had wonderful french school run by french people. some nuns spent were your parents wealthy? >> my parents were not excessively rich, but yes, they belonged to the upper middle class. >> would you consider your family to be a secular family or a devout family? >> well, i don't see life as binary opposites. so these divisions, if you would allow me to say, don't mean much to me. my parents were both muslim. my father was not a practicing muslim. never saw them pray or fast, but my mother was a practicing muslim.
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she prayed, she fasted, she was unveiled. she was unveiled before the compulsory act of 1936. she was a liberated woman. i consider myself a student of women studies, and i think my first teacher was my mother. >> when did you come to the united states? where did you go to university? >> i arrived in the united states of america on december 17, 1967. i went to cal state. i turned bachelor's degree of art in french literature. then i moved to ucla. i studied french literature there, too, and was almost done with my graduate studies, and i
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knew i was going to write my dissertation on -- when i decided to switch majors to comparative literature so that i can write. my dissertation on iranian women poets, whom i loved. many of my teachers, except one professor, thought that it was a professional suicide of sorts to switch. some of my teachers jokingly told me, she hasn't unpronounceable name as you do. but it was a labor of love. it eventually became a turning
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point in my life. i'm very glad i listened to my heart. >> so did you stay in the states after that, become a citizen, et cetera? >> yes, i have. i have not left this country. after graduation i had a job at the premier institution -- >> prerevolution? >> just iran -- just around revolutionary times. i graduated in 1979. but because i'd worked and my parents didn't think it was a wise thing to return. by that time i had children, and i loved this country so i did not go back. >> have you visited iran over the years? >> for a few years after the
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revolution, because i believe in freedom of conscience. because i have returned, in fact i have started both my literary books with someone who is considered a heretic by the islamic republic of iran. but for me she is a precursor of women's literature. i thought it was not wise to go back neither did my parents. but when the country was liberalized under first president, i went back and, unfortunately, the last visit i have not come back spent what was your experience when you did go back? did you visit the university's? did you visit with women writers
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or was it basically a family trip to? >> now. i visited with faculty -- family but i considered women writers and women artists my literary mothers. so i spent time with a number of them. as i told you at the beginning, i think there is a renaissance, a literary renaissance and iran. there are many women writers who write beautiful work of art. we have more women directors the last decade in iran than we had the whole previous 100 years of cinema history in my country. we have women teachers. we have women dancers. i mean, you name it, we have
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fantastic women. actors, as you know, iranian movies, fantastic iranian movies. won the oscar this year, and justifiably so. so things are not exactly as they are perceived to be in the u.s. if we put aside the government of iran, if you focus on the people of iran, we will see that a civil rights movement, like no other place in the middle east and north africa, a literary movement is going on spent so professor milani, when you -- when you hear people from the west talking about the need to modernize and iran, what do you
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think? >> well, i think this is a great idea. i tell them the desire to modernize iran have started more than 160 years ago. i've said that many men and women have sacrificed life and limb in search of human dignity and democracy and gender equity. i tell them that if we don't start a war, no one can stop that civil movement in iran. no one. and i pray that the nonviolent movement that started in iran would be allowed to flourish. if you would allow me to add,
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the focus of my book is on nonviolent resolution of problems. [inaudible] the ultimate storyteller. as you know, she was married to a serial killer, the king, to whom she volunteered to become a wife of. a serial killer, you know? he had been betrayed by his wife, the queen, and he had decided if he will never be betrayed by a woman again. so after every consummation of relationship with women, he would behead that woman in the morning. so that she will never get a chance to betray him again.
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and the storyteller decided that she can chew him with words -- can chew him with words and with story, and should be. i believe in the power of words. finally, professor, what is this photograph on the front of your book? >> this is a photograph by one of iran's foremost visual artists, a dear friend of mine. she very kindly and generously allowed us to use this photograph. it's from one of her films, a fantastic film. and it's a group of women who are failed, but you are running. -- who are veiled but who are running. since the book is that freedom of movement i thought it is most
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appropriate, and that she used the word before the interview, a stark photograph. so it's a photograph from her. >> and we've been talking with professor farzaneh milani, "words, not swords: iranian women writers and the freedom of movement." here's the cover of the book are this is booktv on c-span2. >> the u.n. is us. your government and mine. and it can be as powerful as these governments want it to be. and sometimes we talk about the u.n. as it, as they, distancing ourselves. by doing that we are giving the governments were ultimately responsible for action or in action in some of these situations an alibi. an alibi and blaming the secretariat and the secretary-general. one of my predecessors used to
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say that we often refer to the secretary-general as s. in chief. it stands for a scapegoat. >> so you're the world's a scapegoat in chief spent exactly. there is a scapegoat function of the u.n., but member states in an immediate have to be very careful not to dump on us so much that we won't even be useful as an alibi. >> more with former u.n. secretary-general kofi annan interviewed by bbc america on afterwards saturday at 10 p.m., and sunday at 9 p.m. and midnight eastern on booktv. >> what are you reading this summer? booktv wants to know. >> i've got three books rolling right now. one is by robert caro, which is about the kind of competition and interaction between
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president kennedy and lyndon johnson, andrew from lyndon johnson's vantage point. and pretty interesting kind of hard-nosed politicians, both publicly and behind the scenes, jockeying for position throughout the primary election of 1960, events throughout the convention which is very, very interesting. the other book is the social conquests of earth by edward o. wilson which is basically how our species came to really rely on social interaction, emotional intelligence, and the way we communicate with each other, kind of build kind of the social networks that we have and how far back that goes. and that's a really interesting book to be reading at the same time you're reading about the kennedy-johnson interactions. because there's so much perception and emotional intelligence that is needed in
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the field of politics and reading people and all of this comes this is something that our species has been evolving with for a long, long time now. and then the final book is by father thomas keating called artfulness, and father keating is not originated by someone who really started to promote centering prayer which is a christian-based meditation. he's a benedictine monk and really has wrote a lot about the importance of having some meditation connected to your religion, and how that really depends our connection to god and everything else, and wrote this book which is based on some conversations that he had, and it's called heartless and it's a beautiful book about christian meditation. so we've got a wide range of reading material this summer. >> for more information on this and other summer reading lists, visit booktv.org.
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>> so my history of financial institutions is a history of learning about these things. so for example, in 1811, new york, the state of new york created a new security law which did two things. first, appropriate law. it allowed anybody to set up a corporation with minimal restrictions. you used to have to go to the legislature and get special permission. and secondly, they created limited liability for investors. and what that meant is that you -- if you invested in a company and the company was later accused of wrongdoing, the lawsuit could never go after your assets because you invested in the company. before that people were afraid to invest in companies they didn't really know. so it made everything like a family business. they had the people you trust. the law changed everything.
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it was copied over all the world. david mas who study these carefully, what i think it did is it created a sense of pleasure in investing. people used to invest in lotteries. they love to gamble. that's another human trait. i love the excitement of finding out whether your number came up. by created -- by creating limited liability it became fun. the same way a lottery is fun. people have to enjoy life, right? has to be something that makes you get out of bed in the morning and give you some excitement. so we design things that give you that feeling. that securities law has been the source of a lot of our innovations, because now investors, it looks like they're playing again. it looks a little selfish, but it draws our economy. other people look at it and said it's gambling, we should shut it down. worse than that, worse than that. but after years of experimenting
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with the, people think well, maybe we have to let people indulge in these feedings. -- feelings. okay, so let me move to another, go for another 10, 15 minutes. i wanted to talk about the future and about some of the ideas that i talk about. i'm going to start from tomorrow, and then move a little bit more and more into the wild future. what happens tomorrow is president obama has said that he will sign the jobs act. that name for the act was a little bit misleading, maybe for some political reasons. it's not about jobs. it's called jumpstart our business startups, that spells jobs. and what it is, it's controversial. i like it though. notably, as an experiment it may
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or may not work well, but let me tell you what's the most interesting part of the jobs act. the jobs act was created in response to requests from internet website providers who wanted to create a crowd funding website for entrepreneurs. so if you're trying to start a business, you can put it up on their website and say, i'm looking for money, and then thousands of investors, or millions, all over the world and send money and you can start a business. ..
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>> so i think this is a good experiment. now, what congress has done is they're worried that it's going to be, there's a lot of cheats out there, unfortunately, and someone is going to steal money from someone else this way. so one thing they've done in the legislation is that for people -- you have to document your income to the web site, and for people with incomes up to $40,000, you can't invest more than 2% of your income which is, what, $800? so it's small for each individual. and that protects people, right? it can't go that bad. and i think the maximum is $10,000 that you can put in you have a higher income. so it's designed to protect people. but even if people can only invest $800, if you get enough of them, you've got real capital. >> you can watch this and other
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programs online at booktv.org. >> next, phillip white recounts winston churchill's iron curtain speech delivered in fulton, missouri, on march 5, 1946. mr. churchill, who had recently lost re-election as british prime minister, was invited to speak by president harry truman who promised to introduce the former prime minister if he accepted the invitation. the author recalls mr. churchill's desire to speak out against the rise of communism and how he later referred to his appearance in missouri as the most important speech of his career. this is about an hour and ten minutes. [inaudible conversations] >> good evening, ladies and gentlemen. welcome to the kansas city public library. i'm crosby kemper, the director, and it's a pleasure to have phil white here tonight.
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phil white comes from olathe, kansas, and has written this wonderful book. it's an extraordinary story. this is one of the six or seven greatest speeches, most important speeches, most consequential speeches in the history of the world, i believe. i've written about it myself. and this speech in fulton, missouri, with the president of the united states and the former prime minister of england on the the stage together set the tone for, created the first, in essence, battle in the history of the cold war, and at the beginning because of churchill's great rhetoric led to, in fact, the first victory. as i've written about, the consequence of this included a moment when beetle smith became, who was executive officer to general eisenhower during world
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war ii, was named ambassador to russia by truman, went to russia right after the speech, had no instructions. and stalin called him into his office at one in the morning and said is in the policy of the united states? and smith, not knowing whether it was the policy of the united states but assuming whatever winston churchill would say must, indeed, be the policy of the united states said, yes. and stalin went into the next room in which the shah's sister, the shah of iran's sister was and announced to her that he was willing to pull russian troops out of iran who were there illegally, in my belief, the first victory of the cold war. it is interesting that there has never been a book-length study of this most important speech until phil white who is a, an amateur a private scholar. actually, i don't think after the publication of this book i can say amateur anymore because this is a wonderful narrative history. andrew roberts, john lucas all
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confirm this. john lucas has said about it, i read our supreme task with considerable care, and i recommend it emphatically. there is now an enormous literature about the cold war but very little about how it actually came about and almost nothing about this address. this book fills the gap and fills it brilliantly. phil has been a writer and lecturer at the american nazarene university, a regular contributor to the historical society of boston university, he's a business writer, remember the public relations society of america? and a frequent contributor to canoe and kayak which must somehow have prepared him for this speech. [laughter] but it's a very good book about a very important topic, and you will be able to buy copies from our friends at barnes & noble in the hall, and phil will sign afterwards and also take your questions and, ladies and gentlemen, it's a pleasure to introduce phil white. [applause]
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>> these aren't my notes. these are my notes, which is good. [laughter] thank you so much to crosby kemper for the kind introduction, to henry as well, lo reasons sew butler, todd foyer and the rest of the kansas city public library team. thank you to rob for driving all the way up from fulton and to those at mid american nazarene university who decided through a combination of bribery and coercion that co-sponsoring this event would be a good idea. [laughter] and speaking of bribery, looking around the audience, i see a few familiar faces, and it's nice to know that, in fact, lining the pockets is still a good way to get people to turn out for this type of thing. [laughter] the only catch being that those
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who i have come to agreement with have to stay to the end, so, please, try to remember that. the rest of you are free to leave if the security guards will let you out. [laughter] this week i was rereading the acknowledgments in my book and was truly amazed by how many people were involved. and in seeing all these names, i realize that while it is, indeed, a book about history, about the struggle between tyranny and liberty and about one of the defining moments of the 20th century, it is nurse -- first and foremost a book about people. now, some of these you won't have heard of until after this talk when whether like it or not you will, but looming large over my narrative is one of the people that you probably have heard of, winston churchill. now, there have been lots of books written about winston churchill, and you may have wondered why write another. while there have been many volumes on his early life, on
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his wilderness years when he was warning of hitler's rise to power and, of course, on churchill's wartime triumph, little has been written about his postwar life and, indeed, as crosby rightly said how this speech came about. indeed, many people don't know that just weeks after millions of londoners cheered churchill through the streets on victory in europe day in may 1945, they voted him out of office in a landslide defeat. some reward for the man who had led his country and in many ways the democratic the victory over tyranny. it was, in fact, the second worst election loss in the history of the conservative party and one that gave the labour party its first majority government. labour looked forward to the postwar needs of new housing, of caring for wounded soldiers and, right or wrong, of constructing a welfare state.
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in contrast, the conservatives really just relied on churchill's reputation and his record of war leader, understandably in some ways. but they failed to propose strong alternatives to labour's plans and really churchill's opponent, the head of the labour party, frankly just outworked him on the campaign trail. despite these facts and atly holding a double-digit lead in the weeks leading up to the election, churchill's advisers were convinced he would still win, and somehow they convinced him too. yet when election day came in 1945, the voters wanted to move on from churchill's wartime coalition. atley was their man, the labour party was in, and winston the churchill at age 70 was out. churchill was a dynamo writing more than 40 books, hundreds of magazine articles and, of course, composing many memorable speeches. he juggled this with his
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political responsibilities with aplomb, calling on many beleaguered secretaries at all hours of the day and night to tran scribe his -- transcribe his lofty prose. he wrote little in his own hand, even letters to his wife were actually written by his secretary. but with his election defeat ca inertia, loss of purpose and self-doubt. was he finished as a politician? would he ever again be able to return as leader? how had the british people neglected him after he had led them to victory over hitler? all these nagging questions plagued his mind. and when he left the prime minister's weekend's candidate, check kerrs, for what he assumed would be the last time, churchill wrote a single, solemn world in the leather-bound book on the guest table, fini. and when his beloved wife columnen tine who had stood at
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his side for all these years tried to cheer churchill up by telling him the election defeat may actually be a blessing in disguise, he said glumly: at this moment, it seems rather effectively disguised. [laughter] now, another reason for churchill's gloom in the summer of 1945 was that he had unfinished business with stalin, and the russian people that had sacrificed so much, and now churchill believed were being led by a man who wanted little different than what hitler had wanted in world war ii, namely the expansion of his powers and doctrine. now, just days before the election results, churchill had sat across the table from stalin in germany where he was trying to make russia honor the yalta tech la ration sign -- declaration which was signed by the russian premier, franklin roosevelt -- now since deceased -- and winston churchill himself just weeks
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before. this had promised the exiled polish leaders free democratic elections here and in other eastern european countries which the red army had supposedly liberated from tyranny only to replace it with another possibly even greater tyranny of communism. but stalin had broken these promises one by one, setting up his own communist puppet administration in poland and refusing to withdraw the red army troops from iran. he wanted more german land and resources. millions of people had already been displaced, and the nation would pay millions in reparations to the kremlin. they also demanded access to the suez canal, the trade route to the middle and far east. now, churchill had reluctantly accepted stalin as an ally when hitler had turned on russia so fatefully in the summer of 1931. of course, initially hitler and
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stalin were allies, but in hitler's paranoia, he had decided that he needed the raw minerals and the land of russia and had, in fact, gone back on his supposed ally. this told churchill pretty much all he needed to know about stalin and his promises. now, at the time churchill needed russia to hold out against the germans on the bitterly cold eastern front while britain and, of course, soon america fought the axis in the west. but he had really despised communism from the beginning, calling it a pestilence and voicing his desire to strangle bolshevism which is another name for communism in its cradle. churchill had wanted to keep british troops in russia after world war i to help the anti-communists, but british prime minister david lloyd george and american presidentwood row will sovereign had -- wood wilson had see toed
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this. vetoed this. it denied personal freedom and liberty for the sake of an all-controlling police state. in russia and at this point across most of eastern europe stalin and his agents told people what to think, how to live, whom to associate with and where to work and virtually every other aspect of their existence. there was no room for creativity, persecution only for religion, and there was no room for debate. the kgb, in fact, encouraged people to turn in friends and family members who they thought had uncommunist views. and what was the punishment for such a crime if convicted as people invariably were? well, it was exile to the brutally cold gulag, the harsh siberian labor camps in which many tied of hypothermia -- dies of hypothermia, starvation.
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tens of thousands of people over stalin's rain. since coming to power in 1922, stalin had, in fact, killed up to 30 million of his own people through mass purges and execution of anyone who he thought would oppose himment -- him. the only news a russian could get was through the pravda magazine which was an organ of the kremlin. in fact, the propaganda ministry employed hundreds whose job it was to convince mugs and, in time, most of eastern europe that not only was communism inherently good and capitalism bad, but also that life in democratic countries was miss rabble. miserable. many believed these lies because they knew nothing else, and really they had been brainwashed by the kremlin into what was in many ways the cult of communism. and the people of russia and eastern europe were not allowed
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out to see the truth. they even needed a passport to move around inside their own countries. we cannot imagine this level of control. and now we go back to 1945, and with hitler defeated, winston churchill recognized that communism was now the greatest threat to the democratic west. and he had, in fact, written to harry truman in may of 1945 of that year that saw him voted out of power to warn truman that stalin was bringing down an iron curtain across europe. as russia morphed into the soviet union, the abuses of communism spread across eastern europe. british and american diplomats were followed, harassed and even expelled. no foreign journalists were allowed in. you can see where the modern dictators in syria, iran and north korea get their inspiration, the censorship of the o media and the lockdown or even a stranglehold on social media sites and the internet.
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in poland several thousand people were sent horrifyingly to the very concentration and prison camps that the allies and in some cases the red army had liberated. of course, soviet officials wanted to stop word of these abuses from leaking out and to keep those subjected to that paranoia and oppression in. now, stalin had promised re-election in poland -- free elections in poland, but in time the way moscow rewarded the heroic patriots of the polish underground movement who had fought the entire length of the war against the nazi occupation was by sending them to prison or, indeed, to their death. russia was a country, let us remember, that sent many of its own soldiers to the gulag after the war ended in case they had been turned against the russian empire.
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churchill's election defeat robbed him of the chance to right these wrongs. it also prevented him from getting to better know harry truman, the man who had replaced fdr who he realized was the one person in the world whose actions could possibly prevent the spread of communism and divert the third world war. churchill believed if he could just sit down and talk with stalin, preferably with harry truman sitting ahongside, that he could gain the concessions needed to safeguard democracy. but with that chance denied him where his meek successor, atley, who churchill had once called a sheep in sheeps clothing -- [laughter] what, indeed, could winston churchill do about it now? after a few weeks of feeling sorry for himself, churchill knew what he must do: warn the
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world about the perils of communism and call on harry truman for a tighter relationship between britain and america. now, churchill's seat at the power table was gone. what remained were his two most potent weapons, his went -- or, rather, the pen of his secretaries -- and his voice. be he gave a rousing speech in the house of commons during august 1945, and there he first introduced the world the phrase "the iron curtain." but for whatever reason, it didn't gain much media attention either in britain, the u.s. or elsewhere. churchill also shared his fears with the canadian prime minister, mckenzie king, who he told russia was grabbing one european country after another, much as hitler had done. so why did churchill's first public warnings against communism fall on deaf ears? well, there were several reasons. first, the war-weary british and american people didn't want the hear anything bad about their
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supposed ally, stalin. the media had portrayed this kind, jovial uncle joe and really made him out to be just a kindly family relative who would sit down and regale you with stories and coaz su up to -- cozy up to churchill and first fdr and then truman. and even churchill and fdr had used these terms in their memos to each other. and then there was the fact that prevailing opinion was much as it was after world world war i. people would do anything to avoid another war. of course, their boys had just come home, at least those who had made it home. and their families could not entertain sending their young men back to fight communist russia. then there was also the feeling of postwar on the mitt romney to -- optimism to consider. who wants to hear the bad news now that hitler and his cronies are defeated? people just wanted to get on with their lives in peacetime
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and not in war. regardless, churchill knew that he had to get through to them. communism is not some harmless experiment with a new perform of government, not just a more stringent type of socialism than the one that was starting to take hold in america and, indeed, with the labour victory in britain, there too. churchill knew deep down that while he enjoyed stalin's company and thought he could influence him on a one-on-one basis, that he couldn't be trusted. and with hundreds of thousands of russian troops still stationed in western europe and the red army controlling all of eastern berlin where they were backing far left leaders trying to fill hitler's void, churchill recognized that the backs of britain and america were well and truly against the wall, or, as he had termed it, an iron curtain. as with hitler, cur chill knew -- churchill knew giving stalin a few appeasements would not appease him.
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karl marx's communist manifesto showed that communism was inherently expansionist, confirming churchill's worst fears. winston churchill believed that only reconciliation between france and germany, a tight bond between britain and america, and active diplomacy backed by the west's military superiority had any hope of preventing communism from spreading like the disease that he believed it to be. but churchill needed a platform to air his thoughts to the world. his postwar victory lap of receiving honorary disagrees and this honor and that honor across britain and a relaxing holiday in italy and monte carlo in 1945 were all well and good, but churchill was a man of action. the question was where and when could he speak the truth about communism to a bide and also attentive -- wide and also attentive audience?
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and so it was that in october 1945 an invite came to him by u.s. state department mail from the most unlikely venue imaginable, westminster college in tiny fulton, missouri. [laughter] with its -- no, that's not right, it doesn't say 3,000 here, with its 300 students. [laughter] and now frank mcclure, who if technology doesn't fail me -- there we see him with his wife, ida belle -- was the president of westminster, and he had an old classmate, harry bourne. as we all know, truman liked his missouri boys better than anybody, and it was known as the missouri gang among the press. so mcclure, who had earned his nickname bullet as a fearsome member of westminster's debate team, had the idea of askingture chill to speak -- churchill to
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speak at westminster college, missouri. bourne managed to get him five minutes with truman in to value office. the president, who was like mcclure a missourian as we've already found out -- i don't know who put that in there -- [laughter] liked mcclure's invite, and, in fact, he said it's a good letter and i'll add a postscript, and he took up his pen and scribbled, this is a wonderful school in my home state. hope you can do it, i'll introduce you. and he handed it back. he said, now, you send that to him. [laughter] now, bullet mcclure had landed other big names in the past, new york city mayor laguardia who, of course, you may have flown through the airport that bears his name, and at the time new fbi director j. edgar hoover. they had both spoken because of bullet's audacious invitations, but winstonture chul was in -- churchill was in another
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category altogether. budget knew even with truman's help it was still a long shot. churchill received dozens of invitations every month asking him to grace the colleges of harvard and stanford with his presence. but when churchill read mcclure's note and saw truman's addendum, he knew this was it, this was his opportunity. with the president of the united states introducing churchill in his home state, the world would have to be watching and listening. so despite the odds, bullet mcclure from westminster college had done it. churchill and truman were coming to fulton in march of 1946. unfortunately, bullet mcclure didn't really know what he'd bargained for. it seemed pretty easy to write the letter and certainly nice
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getting to go to the white house, but soon enough a question came to his mind, how on earth is this town of 8,000 people going to accommodate tens of thousands of visitor coming here to see the two most famous men in the world? so to try to overcome this logistical nightmare, mcclure established committees for every conceivable detail; housing, food, safety, policing communications, even toilets. they did, in fact, have a toilet committee, woringly enough. [laughter] now, mcclure couldn't do all this work alone, so he hired two publicists, and he worked around the clock with them even while laboring to restore his beloved westminster college to postwar posterity because, of course, any male over the age of 17 had been draft eligible, and it was only mcclure's negotiating that had, in fact, kept the college going when the government agreed to host a naval training program for cadets there.
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so westminster college booked blocks of rooms for hundreds of miles and even opened the doors of its fraternity houses which being a christian school were not as raucous as larger schools in the state. nonetheless, he opened the doors to journalists and radio station staff who couldn't fit into the hotel blocks that were reserved. newspapers across z america and, indeed, the world carried news of mcclure's unlikely triumph and of churchill's eminent arrival in fulton, a town that churchill had never heard of, to be perfectly honest. now, more than 15,000 and possibly as many as 20,000 requests for only 2800 tickets flooded in to the tiny westminster college mail room which was about the size of this podium and possibly smaller. [laughter] nobody was allowed to hand out more than two tickets to anyone without bullet's say so, so the ticket allocation didn't get too out of hand. but this meant that he had to
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oversee virtually every request as, of course, most people wanted two tickets, and in the case of one letter, up to 18 which seems as audacious as it, in fact, was. fulton's five churches and the seemingly endless number of ladies' associations in the town offered help. there would still be a huge food shortage. so bullet's team enlisted the help of caterers from st. louis who delivered 8,000 pounds of hot dogs dogs and 3,000 pounds f hamburger, as one does. southwestern bell laid thousands of telephone cables turning the sidewalks into temporary construction sites. and even the mcclures' home was not safe from the turmoil. they installed a new tub in case churchill wanted one of his famous and well publicized daily soaks. and the couple's only son richmond, fresh from returning as a decorated war hero in europe, gave up his room so the
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former prime minister could take his customary afternoon nap. journalists and photographers descended on fulton which was once to the mule-trading capitaf the u.s. and now employed two shoe factories, a brick factory, the farmers that surrounded the town and a wide assortment of stores lined the cobbled main drag which consisted of about three blocks. and while mcclure, his wife and their army of volunteers got everything ready, winston churchill was journeying down to miami in florida where he was to spend a few weeks at the home of a canadian colonel. churchill loved to paint and finished several canvass. he also frolicked in the sea like an oversized, pasty 5-year-old. [laughter] attending a horse racing event, the popular and -- i apologize if anyone is here from florida -- high lay ya race track with its famous infield that was populated of all things
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by pink flamingos. churchill backed a couple of winners and won a few bucks. he also took a two-day jaunt on a plane lent to him by president truman because as we all know, world leaders lend things to each other like planes. can he also went down to havana where he could acquire a bumper supply of his soon to be banned trademark cigars. reporters followed churchill everywhere, and his packed schedule caused some tension in the house. in fact, one argument between he and columnen tine, his wife, was so intense that according to joe, his 26-year-old secretary who have present for the trip, the churchills couldn't speak to each other or, indeed, look at each other for two whole days, and anyone that's married in the audience may or may not know what i'm talking about. [laughter] i'm only joking, nicole.
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churchill also had serious business to attend to. he met with a financier and secretary of state james burns about the proposed $3.75 billion loan to britain which many isolationists in both the republican and democratic parties were dead set against, not least because america had already pumped millions into the war effort. in february 1946 churchill flew from missouri to washington to meet truman. with his plane going through the worst snowstorm to hit the capital that winter. because they weren't wearing seat belts, and why would you if you're trying to smoke your cigars and drinking scotch probably, churchill and his group were thrown into the air and landed hard on the floor of the ex-military aircraft. there was no first class flatbed luxury, it seems, even for mr. winston churchill. the plane still landed safely,
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and once at the white house, churchill talked in earnest with truman for several hours about the speech that was to come. and as the days of february slipped away and march came up, churchill worked on the speech which had the working title of "world peace" in earnest for hours at a time. he sought input from those he trusted, showing or reading drafts to secretary of state burns, admiral william leahy, mckenzie king and british ambassador lord halifax to name just a few. halifax recalled later that the first time churchill read the draft to him, he was so passionate that tears welled in his eyes and started trickling down his cheeks. churchill was certainly never a man lacking passion, each when just reading a first draft. and, indeed, he was always dill gent in his speech -- dill gent in his speech writing. one historian claims he devoted one hour of every american in
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his speeches to just relentlessly reading and reading. so a 60 minute speech would have been 60 hours, and as we know about churchill he liked to speak so, in fact, many of them may have taken 60 hours to prepare. yet in my research i found he went even further with what was soon known as the iron curtain speech, showing it to more people than any other. and though he did collaborate and accepted many, many suggestions, the fact remains that like any other politician of that time or this, winston churchill wrote his own speeches, and he wrote this one dictating change after change to his beleerged and overworked secretary, joe sturdy, the 26-year-old who probably didn't know what she was in for when she said, sure, i'll go for a sunshine vacation in miami with you. [laughter] now, sturdy wasn't alone. she lucky had the help from one of colonel clark's assistants, and indeed, their tasks were so many and various that lord halifax sent down an extra
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secretary from washington, d.c. to help. and when ms. sturdy wasn't being summoned to go through churchill's note for the or 175th time, the two assistants and, soon, the third one sent down from washington, sorted through hundreds of adoring letters that arrived each week. the only person getting more mail, in fact, was bullet mcclure who continued getting requests for tickets as the speech date of march 5th crept up. and if technology doesn't fail me, we can see mr. mcclure or and two of his associates, joe humphreys, his publicist, and neil work, the president of the board of trustees at westminster, poring over some of these letters and, indeed, a map of the proposed route. now, i can't remember what the next slide is, so we're just going to go with it in a moment. on march 4th churchill again flew to washington, and indeed, it caused less headache literally and fig rah tyly. and he, truman and truman's advisers along with about 65
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reporters who fancied a trip to missouri as one would, of course, took the presidential train to st. louis, almost 850 miles. and then on to jefferson city, missouri. one of my favorite part of the story, churchill positioned himself as a profirm gambler to the president, but the problem was, of course, that truman and his aides played quite a lot of poker, and the former prime minister soon found himself in quite a hole. now, when churchill took a bathroom break, major general vaughn, the man who'd helped bring churchill to fulton, leaned over to harry truman and said, boss, this guy's a pigeon. we're going of to have his pants before the night's over. [laughter] now, before the game truman was worried that his boys wouldn't be competitive enough, and he had urged them to play hard because, as he said, national honor is at stake. but truman now told them to go easy on their guest, and they each threw a few hands for him.
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somehow churchill still managed the lose $200 by the end of the night. [laughter] an expensive trip, indeed. that same evening churchill told truman and his gang that he had first tried whiskey by serving with his army in south africa and by dill gent effort had come to like it. [laughter] now, later in the journey truman finally looked at the speech, even though he had planned not to so he could distance himself if it was criticized. and churchill had retitled the speech by this time "the sin knews of peace." when truman's press secretary charlie raz which, unsurprisingly, was another boy from missouri and had won a prettier prize working for the st. post dispatch, took this final copy -- they only had one -- and he took it down to the 65 reporters who were riding in the front two cars of the
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train, and there was for somebody to copy it out longhand and pass copies around which i'm glad i didn't have his job. but anyway, they couldn't believe it, the press corps, when all 65 of them crammed into these tiny little compartments of the train, they just couldn't believe that churchill wrote his own speeches because they had never heard of an american or, indeed, a british politician who did. no wonder they're so good, said one new york times writer. he actually writes them himself. now, the trip was beneficial to churchill who was, of course, eager to share his views on communism and the need for the continued partnership between britain and america with all the postwar challenges. their time together was also useful for truman. remember, churchill had been in high office for more than 30 years while truman had been president for less than a year, and on his resumé had been farming and, indeed, managing a men's clothing store that failed
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during the depression right near kansas city, missouri. so this was quite the time for truman to get to know one of the world's preeminent statesmen. and when he spent a few minutes on the train platform in st. louis before they changed trains, harry truman waved at a little boy. despite his grandma's pleas, the boy would just not wave back, and with a 2-year-old and a 5-year-old, i kind of know that face. almost churchillian. and truman joked to the mayor and said, well, he must be a republican. [laughter] now we're going to have a little look at a slide. oh, look at it. it's beautiful. what do we find here? bullet on his big day which we're coming right to. arriving in jefferson city, churchill and truman were greeted by missouri governor phil donnelly who gave churchill yet another box of cuban cigars,
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as if he needed any more after getting hundreds on his trip to havana. but he appreciated the gesture. also there to meet him was the man whose audacity had made this day possible, frank "bullet" mcclure from westminster college. after the men shook hands and exchanged a few kind words, they hopped in the governor's brand new shiny black packard coupe which was big enough to accommodate half of jefferson city at least. during a brief parade through the streets, churchill waved to a chronically-ill doctor who was propped up at his bedroom window. on the outskirts of jefferson city, things were not going well though for frank "budget" mcclure on his big day. smoke billowed from the car car keying churchill and truman and not just from the endless supply of lit cigars inside.
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they clambered out as the car ground to a halt. churchill's secretary and butler got out too, and after a brief game of music call chairs and running around and just chaos, the coupe was ready again to go by road to fulton. now, in fulton people had started arriving at dawn, and the dozens of small stores that lined the main drag were doing a roaring trade. on the streets vendors sold brightly-colored pennants and american flags with churchill and truman day emblazoned either across or in case of fending the american flag below them. and balloon sellers quickly sold all their wares to local chirp. it was a fair ground atmosphere in this normally sedate small town. by the time churchill and truman's car came to the edge of the city, more than 25,000 people had jammed the streets in any spot they could find,
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propped in doorways, up on the courthouse steps, and even up in second and third-floor windows to get a better view. many more would have come if local radio stations hadn't scared them off by warning of overcrowding and of bad weather. but despite their grim predictions, it was unusually warm for march. in looking at photos and video footage from the fulton parade, i was amazed how vulnerable churchill and truman look inside chair open-top cars. of course, jfk's fateful trip to dallas was still many years away, and presidential security was still very much a work in progress. crowds lined the sidewalk five deep in some places. three bands played, and the cheering was almost deafening as true match and churchill rode past. -- truman and churchill rode past. churchill, of course, in his familiar pose, cigar between his lips, two fingers aloft in the v
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for victory sign with the colorful banners above him blowing in the wreez. truman, as impension my dressed d impeccably dressed as you would expect smiled and waveed his gray fedora at the crowd. this day was not just about the famous guests or bullet mcclue, but it was also about those who had come from far and wide to see them. and this is one of my favorite parts of the book in being able to conduct interviews and tell the stories of a few of those people. in fact, mr. r. wharton is here with us this evening, and i thank him for dignifying him with his presence and coming all this way. thank you, art. on the sidewalk beside the oil gas station, a 14-year-old sold ham sandwiches and dr. pepper that he bought from a local caée that morning at cost. he was quite the entrepreneur even at age 14 and had lugged
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them in a heavy cooler through the busy streets. a few blocks down his classmate, bill johnson, sold the special edition of the fulton sun gazette until his hands turned black with print, and then he climbed up onto the roof of a local insurance company so he could get a better view of churchill and truman as they drove past. now, after circling through the town, the cars went up onto westminster's hilltop campus with, as we saw with the previous picture if i can get back there -- yes, it's doing it -- it was kind of crescent shaped. there we are. and now churchill and truman were being asked constantly to turn around, winston. let's get another photo of you. turn around, harry. and they obliged as many times as they could, but finally it was time to go into the mcclures' house which would house about 65 people that day including, of course, the guest of honor. and getting up -- going up the
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front steps and getting onto the porch, churchill asked ida belle mcclure as he walked thereupon, mrs. mcclure, may i bring this old stogie into your home? now, she was luckily well used to her husband's pipe smoking and agreed, and anyway, could she have turned down the world's most famous cigar smoker? mrs. mcclure remembered later churchill's hand were very soft, almost like a babies, which struck me as an odd but telling description. there was a huge buffet of food, rolls, salads, mashed potatoes, a good old missouri feast. churchill was impressed most by the giant ham that had been curing for weeks, and he turns to ida belle and said, the pig has reached the highest point of its evolution in this ham. [laughter] and so ida belle considered that a job well done. and here we see a picture taken
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just after the lunch of governor phil donnelly of missouri, mr. churchill himself, president harry truman and bullet mcclure sharing a laugh about something or other, probably the ham comment. and at around 2 p.m. the police and secret service began letting people in to the gym, and many more lined up outside. of course, only those who had a ticket and were able to get on to the campus. now, with all the floor dresses, the big hats and the freshly-pressed suits, the scene to me at least resembled a fancy wedding. almost 200 reporters and photographers crowded onto a makeshift platform that was suspended precariously high above the gym floor at one end. in the basement, hundreds of yards of cable snaked around under chairs and cables, and western union operators sat poised at their typewriters checking paper and ribbons. ..
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now as i said it was in a dry county. truman knowing that his friend knew many people in the town, he ran in to an old friend. it seemed like he knew everyone there, and sent the man dashing off in to town. he came back a few minutes later checking there were no alcohol police or whatever they were called with a small bottle that required -- sorry, carefully tucked in to the jacket pocket. grabbing an ice bucket and
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glasses from the kitchen, he made the way upstairs and wrapped on what he hopes the correct bedroom doctor. door. winston churchill rushed him in he was happy when he saw what was the occasion was. thank goodness, i was wonder, if i was in full ton, missouri, or fullton sahara. after they shared a drink, they went downstairs and he was startled by a photographer flashbulb. he turned to truman and grinned and said there must be a russian in the house. a few minutes before the speech, they joined an academic procession lead by the college
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skulls and seven. at the west minister college the most recent of which was the past weekend, you'll know that speakers today are lead to the podium in this manner. and there we see churchill and a few moments technical misery notwithstanding we may get to batch a little video. you can stop listening to me for a moment. we'll see. it was hot insideedthe crowded gym. it was known house about 500 people. they jammed 2500. with the windows it was getting sticky. churchill did forget his coat, and sent a baffled aid running out to find it, unfortunately when he got back to the stage, churchill changed his mind and looked at him like when he was crazy.
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churchill after the truman's kind introduction he introductioned himself to the crowd. joining, but he had been schooledded at west minister. in this case in the house of commons in west minister england. he claimed to be a private citizens speaking for himself. but harry harry truman's presence there on the stage and in the home state endorse what his gusts had to say. they began talking about american power and responsibility and then said, and you may recognize as familiar if you are familiar with the book. supreme task and duty is guard the home of the common freedom the horror and misery of another war. he then called far strong, active united nations and for britain, canada, and the united states to keep their shared atomic secrets in fact secret in case they fell in the hands of
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total yaren governments. at this point in the speech, he didn't name the government he had in mind. next he explored the horrors caused by world world war ii and warned again being drawn in to global, catastrophic conflict. he then moved on to what he called the second of two orders, namely terne any. he told the grown -- crowd of a society far different than america's or britain's there was a controlling police state and where were there no rights to the individual whatsoever. this tyranny, he said, was the opposite of those liberal democratic values which we still cherish today, the rule of law, elected government, freedom of speech, and expression it's no coincidence that the an verse of thomas jefferson's inauguration
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speech was the day before churchill spoke. what can prevent the 1r58s and spread the tyranny he asked the audience in nothing less than that the special relationship between brit dan and the united states to build what he called peace. however, standing in their way, was the threat of expansion communism, mr. churchill gave name to. and lets watch, if we could, a short clip about what churchill said next. oh my good grief. i shall tread to you and stop if the video comes back. >> in and [inaudible]
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has decented across the continent. mind that line, by all the capitals of the and ancients straits of central and eastern europe, berlin, prague, vienna, [inaudible] all of these famous cities and the population around them lie in what i must call the soviet, an all of our subjects -- [inaudible] soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increases [inaudible] from moscow. he said it better than i would have. now church hill went on to talk about the many soviet misdeeds among them. displaces millions of germans
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from their homes trying to destablize even western europe. want to prevent at all cos democracy from being accomplished -- accomplished in berlin. making outrageous demands in turkey and iran. and backing the communism take over attempt in china. he then stated most need for act active diplomacy backed by military strength and said of russia there's nothing they have less of respect than weakness especially military weakness. he linked the warning about communism to the sounding of the world war ii bell. the first time, they had forgotten. no one would listen and one by one we were all sucked in to the awful whorl pool. surely, we must not let that
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happen again. america and brit dan were at the cross roads churchill believed with two possible paths ahead. failure to act on the threat of communism would send them back to a school of war for a third time he contended. in contrast, standing strong and actively pursuing a settlement with russia would enable america, britain, and the world to go down the brighter path where he said the high roads of the future will be clear, not only for us, but for all. not only for our time, but a century to come. now as i research the opt ma of this most historic of churchill's speeches, i was amazed how strong the negative reactions truly were. today we remember it as one of the pivotal -- moments of ther radiowith a a speech that
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defined the problems of the postwar world, and one that ushered in the cold war. but as -- but at the time he was blasted on both sides of the atlantic and on both sides of the aisle. despite the speech being called peace, press and politicians called him an imperialist, an old toy, perhaps. stall inhimself called him a war monger insinuated it was churchill, not stalin, who wanted world war iii and world domination. after ward, denied reading the speech even though as we heard on the train he couldn't hold back the curiosity. in england, labor and peace brought a motion of -- in the house of commons and in the united states hundreds of protesters gathered outside of the waldorf in new york chanting
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"joe is home to stay go away." at each speech, churchill stuck to the guns and growled defindly, i do not wish to withdrawal or modify a single world. we can benefit from such resolution, such strength, and conviction today. despite the negative reaction, churchill's words affected u.s. policy immediately, in addition to the antidote which they shared earlier that the day churchill was at the podium, secretary of state james sent strong warnings to moscow about russia needing to leave iran at once as it promise and asking for details how the sowf yesterdays were funding the chinese communist. the months before churchill went
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to full ton, truman and his team read the telegram from moscow and shared the point. russia wanted to spread communism and gain influence worldwide. it stood against democracy, and the only diplomacy backed by military strength of the way forward and the way to secure the lasting peace of which both cannon wrote and churchill indeed spoke. the following year 1947, truman announced the truman doctrine at the speech at harvard. harvard, of course, was a different setting from west minister college. the small school had dignified itself as much. on the big day as the great institution did on this. it was farredded in time by the marshall plan to reconstruct europe to great a bold steer
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against expansion communism. despite the weary prediction and doomsday predictions, really, that the political career was over after the election defeat in 1945, which i remind you again, he was 70 years old at this time. churchill did indeed become prime minister for a second time in 1952. and from this point until the end of his career he devoted all his energy sometimings know -- in to reaching a settlement with russia of a peaceful and lasting settlement. churchill wanted to go on a lonely trip to mouse moscow and organize three-party talks as he suggested. he achieve neither but in the long run the -- coined the phrase when churchill spoke
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them. influence the next two generation america and even russia itself. what is the legacy of the speech now? the speech afterall delivered almost 66 years to this day. first, it is the churchill was inherently right. communism is a global force. next, is the impact of churchill's policy of active diplomacy acted by strength. we saw the marks on everyone from jfk and the handling of cuban missile crisis to richard nixon the ability to sit down and call up the summit with the russian leaders. indeed jfk was an avid reader of churchill's speeches and patent one of the prize winning books. he made him